We only apply the five-step model to contracts when it is probable that we will collect the consideration to which we are entitled in exchange for the goods or services transferred to our customer.
At contract inception, once the contract is determined to be within the scope of ASC 606, we assess the goods or services promised within the contract to determine whether each promised good or service is a performance obligation. The promised goods or services in our arrangements typically consist of a license to our intellectual property and/or research and development services. We may provide options to additional items in such arrangements, which are accounted for as separate contracts when our customer elects to exercise such options, unless the option provides a material right to our customer. Performance obligations are promises in a contract to transfer a distinct good or service to our customer that (i) our customer can benefit from on its own or together with other readily available resources, and (ii) is separately identifiable from other promises in the contract. Goods or services that are not individually distinct performance obligations are combined with other promised goods or services until such combined group of promises meet the requirements of a performance obligation.
We determine transaction price based on the amount of consideration we expect to receive for transferring the promised goods or services in the contract. Consideration may be fixed, variable, or a combination of both. At contract inception for arrangements that include variable consideration, we estimate the probability and extent of consideration we expect to receive under the contract utilizing either the most likely amount method or expected amount method, whichever best estimates the amount expected to be received. We then consider any constraints on the variable consideration and include in the transaction price variable consideration to the extent it is deemed probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur when the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration is subsequently resolved.
We then allocate the transaction price to each performance obligation based on the relative standalone selling price and recognize as revenue the amount of the transaction price that is allocated to the respective performance obligation when (or as) control is transferred to our customer and the performance obligation is satisfied. For performance obligations which consist of licenses and other promises, we utilize judgment to assess the nature of the combined performance obligation to determine whether the combined performance obligation is satisfied over time or at a point in time and, if over time, the appropriate method of measuring progress. We evaluate the measure of progress each reporting period and, if necessary, adjust the measure of performance and related revenue recognition.
We record amounts as accounts receivable when the right to consideration is deemed unconditional. When consideration is received, or such consideration is unconditionally due, from our customer prior to transferring goods or services to our customer under the terms of a contract, a contract liability is recorded for deferred revenue.
We do not assess whether a contract has a significant financing component if the expectation at contract inception is that the period between payment by our customer and the transfer of the promised goods or services to our customer will be one year or less. Incremental costs of obtaining a contract are expensed as and when incurred if the expected period over which we would have amortized the asset is one year or less, or the amount is immaterial.
Adoption of ASC 606
We adopted ASC 606 on January 1, 2018, using the modified retrospective method for all contracts not completed as of the date of adoption. Our reported results for 2018 reflect the application of ASC 606 guidance while our reported results for 2017 and 2016 were prepared under the guidance outlined in ASC 605, Revenue Recognition (“ASC 605”). The adoption of ASC 606 is considered a change in accounting policy which impacts the pattern and timing of revenue recognition under our license and collaboration agreement with NHS. Under ASC 605, the upfront fee of $120,000 received by the Company in the first quarter of 2016 was deferred and recognized on a straight-line basis over the estimated performance period of ten years. In addition, the Company recognized revenue associated with substantive development milestones not considered probable at the inception of the License Agreement with NHS in their entirety in the period in which the milestone was achieved, in accordance with ASC 605-28, Revenue Recognition-Milestone Method.